Participle II (причастие II) употребляется в функции определения и занимает место перед определяемым существительным либо является частью причастного оборота, последующего за существительным. Оно переводится на российский язык причастиями страдательного залога:

broken vase – разбитая ваза

stolen money – украденные средства

his last published novel – его последний размещенный роман

I know that man arrested by the police. Я знаю PARTICIPLE II - Причастие II. человека, арестованного милицией.

Some people invited to the party couldn’t come. Некие люди, приглашенные на вечеринку, не смогли придти.

See also Lessons 10 and 12.

Task 8.. Translate the sentences into Russian and indicate Participle II:

1. The books written by this author are extremely popular.

2. He always wears clothes мейд in Italy.

3. The PARTICIPLE II - Причастие II. questions put to the professor were rather interesting.

4. My friend liked the video bought last week.

5. She understood every word said by him.

6. They bought the house built many years ago.

Task 9. Make one sentence from two using Participle II.

1. I lost the key. I didn’t find it PARTICIPLE II - Причастие II.. I didn’t find the lost key.

2. The letter was written by him. It was very long.

3. The man was hit by the car. We took him to hospital.

4. Many new shops are opened in our town. They are very cheap.

5. Look at this big red car. It is parked near PARTICIPLE II - Причастие II. mine.

6. There are many houses in this street. They were broken by the storm.


Task 10. Answer the following questions:

1. What are the two oldest universities founded in Britain?

2. Why are they superior to other universities?

3. What periods are known as waves of expansion of higher education?

4. What subjects do PARTICIPLE II - Причастие II. most universities in Britain teach?

5. What are the main degrees in the British educational system?

6. How can one get these degrees?

7. Why wasn’t it possible anymore to provide free education and give grants?

8. Why are there big debates over university fees?

Task 11. True or false?

1. Oxford PARTICIPLE II - Причастие II. and Cambridge are higher in status than other British universities.

2. Higher education began to expand after foundation of Oxford and Cambridge.

3. 20 years ago there were more university students than nowadays.

4. English students usually go to a university near their home.

5. To get the Bachelor’s degree one must PARTICIPLE II - Причастие II. do a research work.

6. To become PhD one needn’t pass examinations.

7. Excellent students in Britain receive grants from the government.

8. Some people can’t afford higher education.

Task 12. Make up the summary of the text using the previous Tasks.

Additional reading

Task 13. Read the article about examinations at Cambridge and put the PARTICIPLE II - Причастие II. parts of the article in the right order.

Cambridge 'Tripos' exams

· This system means that it is theoretically possible (however unlikely) for students to do almost no work for two and a half years, cram like mad for the finals, and come out with a first class degree PARTICIPLE II - Причастие II..

· Eventually, the examinations themselves, firstly in mathematics and later in all other subjects, were called Tripos.

· Students at Cambridge sit the so called 'Tripos' exams.

· But this system has an important advantage: students do not have to do their Part I and Part II in the same subject. This PARTICIPLE II - Причастие II. is a great bonus if you find you are doing the wrong course.

· Each Tripos consists of two parts. A student must pass both parts to get a degree.

· The name comes from a three-legged stool that was once used at graduation ceremonies. A senior graduate of the PARTICIPLE II - Причастие II. University sat on the stool and read poetry to entertain other graduates. The names of the graduates (the 'Tripos list') were printed on the back of the poems.

· Unlike many other universities, where the final grade of the degree is based on scores throughout the three years, a Cambridge PARTICIPLE II - Причастие II. grade is based purely on the score in the Part II.

Lesson 12. Higher education in Russia


Task 1. Think of higher education in our country.

Choose the appropriate variant out of the answers given after every question.

  1. Most young people are admitted to institutes and universities at the

age of ….

a) 19-20

b PARTICIPLE II - Причастие II.) 16-17

  1. Most courses of studies at the higher educational institutions run for …….

a) less than 4 years

b) 5 years and more

  1. Higher education in Russia is….

a) completely free

b) only paid

c) both free and fee-paying

  1. Students of higher educational institutions who show good results in their studies receive a certain amount of money PARTICIPLE II - Причастие II. called…….

a) a grant

b) a salary

c) a honorary

Task 2. Think of the topic of higher education in our country and say what you think of the following points:

1. How many years do you have to study if you go to university after school and then to some postgraduate studies? Do you PARTICIPLE II - Причастие II. think it’s very hard to be a student of any higher educational institution in Russia?

2. Name all types of higher educational institutions in Russia which you know or learn from the text.

3. Do you see differences in educational systems in Britain and Russia?